Critical Reasoning for CLAT, Passage- Global Citizenship

The UN’s Global Education First Initiative states, ‘It is not enough for education to produce individuals who can read, write and count. Education must fully assume its central role in helping people to forge more just, peaceful, tolerant and inclusive societies.’ Today’s world is facing major global challenges and to address these challenges, we need to prepare citizens who know the ABCs of being an active global citizen – citizens who are ready to think globally and act locally! The increased intolerance, rise in nationalism and dearth of humanity demands citizens who understand the true value of education, and the need of creating a just and peaceful world.

 

With the upsurge in the population, we need many more institutions and change makers who are ready to dive in the process of advancing quality education across national and cultural divides. We need to have collaboration between NGOs, community leaders, government officials, leaders from diverse backgrounds and policy-makers to come together and push the agenda and priorities of global citizenship education.

 

1. Which of the following is the most desirable outcome from the UN’s Global Education First Initiative’s perspective?

(a) The number of applicants for global citizenship increases.
(b) Discipline, patience and sanctity are taught through the system of education.
(c) The spirit of learning is fostered among students.
(d) The focus shifts from quantity to quality of education.

 

2. Which of the following can be inferred from the author’s description of the UN’s Global Education First Initiative?

(a) Education must strive to prepare students to take on 21st-century challenges and thrive on them.
(b) The education system needs a radical transformation to tackle the rising illiteracy and inhumanity.
(c) The barriers between nations need to be broken, giving way to informed sets of students.
(d) The uncouth and hooligan approach to education should take a back seat and give way to literacy.

 

3. Which of the following instances does not describe a true global citizen (here Mr. X)?

(a) Mr. X is outraged at the atrocities that Tia has to go through for belonging to the lower strata of the society.
(b) Mr. X is a true patriot at heart: he obeys all laws and pays taxes religiously.
(c) Mr. X works with street kids from all corners of the world and paints murals to brighten some of the world’s most destitute places.
(d) Mr. X is striving hard to make the world a more equitable and sustainable place.

 

4. Which of the following if true, contradicts the basic aim of a global citizen?

(a) Love and respect for diversity
(b) Empathy for other people
(c) Dogmatic and prejudiced attitude in thinking
(d) Participation in the social and political life of one’s community

 

5. Which of the following can be inferred to be an area a global citizen’s help is least likely to be needed?

(a) A zone where a flood has wreaked havoc
(b) A country trampled under communal disharmony
(c) Hunger stricken areas
(d) A technologically inferior country

 

 

 

 

 

1. Ans. (d) The desirable outcome would be for the focus to shift from quantity to quality of education. The UN’s Global Education First Initiative states that it favours change makers who are ready to dive in the process of advancing quality education across national and cultural divides. Option (a) is not related, option (b) is incorrect because the UN’s Global Education First Initiative does not mention discipline (tolerance and patience are needed to be inculcated), option (c) is vague and out of scope. Hence (d).

 

2. Ans. (a) According to The UN’s Global Education First Initiative, just educating students does not count; the recent upsurge of challenges mandates the new generation to address these challenges, and thus the need arises to prepare citizens who know the ABCs of being an active global citizen in the 21st century. Options (b) and (d) are incorrect because literacy is not the sole aim of the initiative. In option (c), the first part is correct, but ‘informed students’ is vague. Hence (a).

 

3. Ans. (b) A global citizen takes head on the problems ailing the society as a whole, like social injustice (option (a)), working together for the neglected (option (c)) or thinking globally (option (d)). Option (b) describes a good citizen on a national level, but not a global one. Hence (b).

 

4. Ans. (c) A global citizen needs to be open towards inclusive thinking, so a dogmatic and narrow-minded approach is contrary to what he stands for. Options (a), (b) and (d) reflect the true essence of a global citizen. Hence (c).

 

5. Ans. (d) Global citizens unite for peace and stability where there is shortage of food (options (a) and (c)), or where a nation is fighting communal conflicts (option (b)). A technologically backward country is not struggling with any of these issues. Hence (d).

Critical Reasoning for CLAT, Passage- Forest Fires

Forest fires or bushfires have been a part of “traditional” narratives in Australia, featuring prominently even in storytelling. However, the climate crisis has changed the traditional narrative of such “normality” in current eco-fiction, exacerbating such events as disastrous and beyond the limits of the resilience of ecosystems. Starting in August 2019, this time, bushfires erupted several months earlier than the typical “annual season” of wildfire, and with an alarming enormity spread, and severity even as the country suffered from its hottest and driest year so far. Before these ravaging fires, Australia’s average temperature rise has been estimated to be about 1.4° Celsius above pre-industrial levels, while the global average heating rate hovers at 1.1°C.

 

With Australia’s average summer temperatures increasing, there has been an increase in the frequency and intensity of heat waves and droughts. Vast parts of the country were reeling under a drought for three years with declining average rainfall levels. The problem was further compounded due to the “strongest ever on record” positive Indian Ocean Dipole event in 2019-meaning starker temperature difference on either side-with warmer sea surface temperatures towards Australia in the west leading to drought-like conditions, and cooler temperatures towards East Africa causing floods.

 

1. Which of the following best represents the main point of the given passage?

(a) The environmental impacts caused by the seasonal forest fires in Australia
(b) The unprecedented occurrence of the Indian Ocean Dipole event
(c) The comparative analysis of Australia’s average temperature escalation with that of the world
(d) The normalization of forest fire as a catastrophe by the Australian narrative

 

2. Which of the following can be inferred from the phrase ‘traditional narrative of such “normality” in current eco-fiction’ as mentioned in the passage?

(a) Forest fires have been occurring in Australia since time immemorial.
(b) The Australians have segregated themselves from the incidents of forest fires.
(c) Forest fires have taken a significant place in the indigenous culture of Australia.
(d) The Australian’s considered forest fires as regular occurrences; not worthy of concern and alarm.

 

3. Which of the following is a message that could be seen coming from the author?

(a) The government of Australia should take effective measures to combat the problem of forest fires.
(b) It is high time that the normalcy in the narrative of the Australians regarding forest fires is changed.
(c) The global population should be made aware of such catastrophes.
(d) The marine environment should be effectively related by eco-friendly practices.

 

4. Which of the following lines from the passage indicate the changes in the climate of Australia which have taken place over time?

(a) However, the climate crisis has changed the traditional narrative of such “normality” in current eco-fiction.
(b) Before these ravaging fires, Australia’s average temperature rise has been estimated to be about 1.4° Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
(c) Vast parts of the country were reeling under a drought for three years with declining average rainfall levels.
(d) With Australia’s average summer temperatures increasing, there has been an increase in the frequency and intensity of heat waves and droughts.

 

5. Which of the following does the author include while explaining the phenomenon of “Indian Ocean Dipole”?

(a) Change in the temperature of surface ocean water around Australia
(b) Change in annual average rainfall level
(c) Change in average temperature
(d) Change in period of occurrence of seasonal forest fires

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Ans. (a) Option (a) is the correct answer as it captures the essence of the passage which is the impact of the forest fire in Australia on its environment. All other options are incorrect as they refer to incidental points of the passage and fail to capture its essence.

 

2. Ans. (d) Option (d) is the correct answer as it can be inferred from the phrase that the Australians have normalized the incidents of forest fires to an extent where they do not regard it as a calamity worthy of being addressed. All the other options are incorrect as they fail to interpret the phrase correctly and present a flawed narrative of the connection of Australians with the incidents of forest fires.

 

3. Ans. (b) Option (b) is the correct answer as the message of the author is specifically directed at the Australian population to start taking incidents of forest fires seriously. Option (a) is incorrect as despite being factually correct, it fails to recognize the target audience towards which the author’s message is directed which is not the government but the people of Australia. Options (c) and (d) are incorrect as they fail to capture the premise on which the passage is based upon rendering them redundant.

 

4. Ans. (c) Option (c) is the correct answer as in the said line a reference has been made to persistent drought in parts of the country and a decline in the average rainfall levels, thereby stating the changes in the climate of Australia which have taken place over time.

 

5. Ans. (a) Option (a) is the correct answer as the author, while explaining the phenomenon of “Indian Ocean Dipole”, focusses on the stark temperature difference on either side of the Australian mainland.

Critical Reasoning for CLAT, Passage- Migration

The reduction in the number of individuals commuting and travelling has without a doubt decreased the propagation of the coronavirus, as indicated by recent research. However, several articles underline the necessity to take into account urban and regional mobilities to better understand the ______ of infectious diseases in particular territories. The difficulty for the research community in considering such data contributes to the vulnerability of societies, notably in countries like India. However, preliminary results from ongoing research using social network data could be a first step to change this.

 

Economic development in India has led to the development of significant intra- and inter-regional mobilities. In addition to workers of the unorganised sectors who are currently stranded due to the nationwide lockdown, metropolitan regions of India are at the centre of major daily flows that have significant consequences on pathogens diffusion such as dengue and COVID -19.

 

 

 

1. Which of the following, if true, would weaken the argument made by the author in the last sentence of the given passage?

(a) Infectious diseases are spread rapidly in rural areas with less human movement.
(b) The chances of contracting diseases spread by viruses, bacteria and other microorganisms are very high in densely populated places.
(c) Many people who are stranded in cities during the nationwide lockdown work in the unorganised sectors.
(d) Movements of people in huge numbers are seen in cities every day.

 

2. Which of the following is the most appropriate word to fill the blank in the second sentence of the first paragraph?

(a) extermination
(b) eradication
(c) emergence
(d) elimination

 

3. Which of the following best describes the author’s argument?

(a) Collecting data on urban and regional movements will help in the understanding of the appearance of infectious diseases.
(b) The COVID-19 pandemic is the cause for the nationwide lockdown.
(c) COVID-19 is one of the pathogens.
(d) The current research on the spread of the COVID-19 is based on social network data.

 

4. If the underlined sentence in the passage is true, which of the following must also be true?

(a) There is an issue of brain drain in India as many Indians move abroad for highly paid jobs.
(b) The people from less developed regions migrate to other regions in search of better job opportunities and businesses.
(c) In India, people from bigger cities do not see any business potential in rural areas.
(d) The people from villages do not seek better opportunities in cities and towns.

 

5. Which of the following is the logical corollary to the last sentence of the given passage?

(a) The mode of detection is passive, fully anonymised and no individually-identifiable information is provided.
(b) To better understand mobility patterns during this period, we accessed Facebook mobile users’ data.
(c) Long-distance relocation of individuals explains the exceptional increase in incoming mobilities from Delhi to the mountains in North India.
(d) In South India, an exodus from cities also occurred, but was limited to the state level.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Ans. (a) It is said in the last sentence of the passage that metropolitan regions of India are at the centre of major daily flows that have significant consequences on pathogens diffusion such as dengue and COVID -19. However, option (a) says that diseases are spread rapid in rural areas with very less human movement. Hence, option (a) would weaken the argument made by the author in the last sentence of the given passage. Options (b), (c) and (d) strengthen the author’s argument made in the same sentence.

 

2. Ans. (c) The blank needs a word that would mean ‘appearance’ or ‘rise’ and since ‘emergence’ means the same thing option (c) is the answer. Options (a), (b) and (d) do not t as they would mean ‘removal’.

 

3. Ans. (a) Option (a) is the answer. According to the author, collection of data on urban and rural regional mobilities will help to better understand the emergence of infectious diseases in particular territories. Options (b), (c) and (d) are true, however, none of them can be the author’s main argument as each of them talks about an aspect of the passage and is not all encompassing.

 

4. Ans. (b) The underlined sentence says that economic development in India has led to the development of significant intra- and inter-regional mobilities. So, option (b) is true accordingly. Options (a), (c) and (d) are false.

 

5. Ans. (b) The author talks about using social network data and metropolitan regions of India being at the centre of major daily movement of people that has significant consequences on pathogens diffusion such as dengue and COVID -19. Therefore, option (b) is the logical corollary to the last sentence of the given passage. Other options may be used in the same passage but none of them can directly continue from the last sentence of the given passage.

Critical Reasoning for CLAT, Passage – Plastic Waste

For years, government campaigns and environmental activism have encouraged us to recycle. But while recycling may feel like the responsible thing to do, it’s not widespread across the world. And recycling has its own problems. When you look at what’s happened to all plastic made over time, the numbers aren’t encouraging: As of 2015, only 9% of all plastic ever made had been recycled, 12% was incinerated and 79% was in landfills or the environment, according to research from Geyer and others. In 2017, only about 8% of the plastic produced in the US was recycled. Global recycling averages are closer to 15% to 20% today, Geyer said, but it’s difficult to quantify how effective recycling programs actually are. While producing a plastic bottle from recycled materials uses less energy than making one from scratch, that bottle made from recycled plastic costs more and is usually of poorer quality.

“Nothing is designed for recycling — it’s all an afterthought,” he said. “We get a material that costs more to produce than it’s worth on the market. Virgin plastic is just dirt cheap to make.” Ultimately, the point of reusing and recycling plastic is to cut down on the production of new plastic. If you’re recycling your plastic water bottles and buying another case, you’re not actually helping solve the problem.

“Not every country has resources to create a sustainable recycling system,” said Tobias Haider, a research associate at PlastX, an organization based at the Institute for Social-Ecological Research in Frankfurt, Germany, that explores the role of plastics in our society and their impacts on the environment. “If you don’t have that, you also don’t have the resources to tackle the waste problem itself.”

Compounding the problem is where a country’s recycling goes. The United States sends much of its scrap plastic and cardboard overseas with China. But in 2018, China stopped taking in most American scrap materials, leaving some US cities to pay more for their recycling programs or end them altogether, and further increasing the burden on other Asian countries.
Even if you try to replace plastics with another material, like paper, there’s still an ecological impact: You’d just be throwing away a paper bag after a few hours, instead of a plastic one. “The sustainable answer would be to create a circular system which reuses the items as much as possible,” Haider said. “Plastic products would not be a problem if we reused them.” For example, you can reuse plastic grocery bags far more times than paper bags because they’re more durable.

Questions

1. Which of the following statements can be the conclusion of the article?
a. Recycling waste is more damaging to the environment.
b. The effectiveness of recycling plastic is overhyped
c. The best way to mitigate plastic problem is to reuse it
d. There is no viable option available for plastic problem.

 

2. What role is played by the description of research from Geyer and others, in relation to the conclusion?
a. It provides support to the conclusion by providing an example.
b. It provides support to the conclusion by providing a contradictory example.
c. It weakens the conclusion by providing an example.
d. It is unrelated to the conclusion.

 

3. What is the role played by the statement ‘When you look at what’s happened to all plastic made over time, the numbers aren’t encouraging’ in the argument?
a. It forms the premise of the argument.
b. It forms the conclusion of the argument
c. Both A and B
d. Neither A nor B

 

4. Which of the following statements, if true, would most weaken the argument presented in the last paragraph?
a. The recycled plastic has less impact on the environment.
b. The plastic doesn’t ever completely recycle.
c. The recycled plastic is less harmful for human that used plastic.
d. Reusing plastic had deleterious impact on human health as it leaves plastic particles when old.

 

5. Which of the following statements, if true, would strengthen the case for recycling?
a. Recycled plastic are easy to decompose
b. Many countries are establishing plants to recycle plastic
c. Recycling plastic is cheaper in Asian countries.
d. The US had seen recent upsurge in plastic recycling.

CLAT Gurukul
Answers

1. B
2. A
3. A
4. D
5. B