Critical Reasoning Practice Set-1

Immune System

A study published in Nature Medicine suggests that antibodies formed against SARS-CoV-2 begin to decrease in number, just two-three months after infection. “We observed that IgG levels and neutralizing antibodies in a high proportion of individuals who recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection start to decrease within two-three months after infection,” Quan-Xin Long from Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China and others write.

(2)In contrast, circulating antibodies against 2002-2003 SARS and MERS coronavirus were found to last more than one year. In the case of the 2002 SARS, sustained IgG levels were seen for more than two years after infection, while antibody response lasted for nearly three years in the case of MERS.

(3)This does not necessarily mean that people previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 can be reinfected soon after. Even if the antibody level decreases, it might be protective. “A person with low antibody level can get reinfected but the viral load will be low, infectivity will be less and he/she may not progress to a diseased state,” says virologist Jacob John formerly with CMC Vellore. “Antibodies specific to a virus even when present in low levels will be protective against disease.”

(4) Besides inducing neutralising antibodies, novel coronavirus has also been found to induce cellular immunity. As a result, the immune system’s T cells and B cells are elevated in an infected person. “Generally, when antibody levels are high, the T cells are low and vice versa,” says Dr. John.

(5)When infected by a virus, non-specific immune response in the form of macrophages, neutrophils and other cells tend to prevent the virus from causing symptoms. Soon after, the body makes antibodies specific to the virus called the immunoglobulins — IgG and IgM, called the adaptive response. In addition, the cellular immunity kicks in when the body makes T cells that destroy cells that have been infected by the virus. The combination of adaptive response and cellular immunity “may prevent progression to severe illness or re-infection by the same virus. This process is often measured by the presence of antibodies in blood,” WHO says.

Source with edits and revisions:

Questions

1. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
a. A person having antibodies against MERS is totally safe from re-infection
b. Only humans can develop antibodies against viruses
c. There are only two kinds of immune system in a human body.
d. Our cellular immune system is designed to destroy the bad cells if needed.

 

2. Which of the following can’t be inferred from the passage?

a. One virus is not as deadly as a million viruses.
b. A person can get re-infected from Covid-19 virus
c. A person can’t get re-infected from MERS virus.
d. Antibodies developed in response to a virus in a human body decreases with time.

3. What is the conclusion of the third paragraph of the passage?

a. A person with low antibody level can get re-infected but the viral load will be low
b. People previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 can be re-infected soon after
c. Antibodies specific to a virus even when present in low levels will be protective against disease.
d. When the infectivity will be less and a person infected with virus may not progress to a diseased state.

 

4. What is the role played by the claim that the combination of adaptive response and cellular immunity “may prevent progression to severe illness or re-infection by the same virus, in the argument?

a. It acts a a premise for the argument.
b. It acts as a conclusion for the argument
c. Neither A nor B
d. Both A and B

 

5. ‘Government of UK issuing certificates to people infected with virus who have developed antibodies’, which of the following statements, if true, would justify the policy enacted by the government?

a. People who have survived the virus are ignorant about the safety measures as they feel they are immune to the virus now.
b. Many countries have successfully contained the viral load to a negligible level
c. South Korea is seeing resurgence of infections, especially amongst those infected earlier.
d. The average age of people dying in UK due to covid-19 is lower than the age of average people dying from covid-19 across the world.

 

Answers

1. D
2. C
3. C
4. B
5. C

Critical Reasoning for CLAT, Passage- Animals in lockdown

During these days of lockdown across various parts of India, we see reports of ‘wild’ animals coming over to the cities, towns and urban clusters. In Uttarakhand, an elephant was reported to come down unusually near Hari ki Pauri in Haridwar. A leopard was sighted in Almora. In Karnataka, elephants, spotted deer and sambar deer had transgressed into towns, while in Maharashtra, people spotted scores of civet cats, mongooses and porcupines in communities. All these ‘trespasses’ have been happening not only in India but across the world, wherever lockdowns took place and regular human activities have been curtailed. Once these lockdowns are lifted, animals are expected to retire back to their wild environment – wherever and however limited they are.

To get a perspective of this, note that of the total land area of the world, which is about 510 million square km, 30% is desert and 24% mountainous, leaving us humans to occupy about 45-50% of the remaining area when we started to live as communities about 17,000 years ago. (Prior to that, humans lived in the wild, along with animals and plants, as hunter gatherers). And over these millennia, particularly during the present one, we have built cities and urban clusters, thus making what was ‘wild’ land into ‘civilised’ land. (Note, too, that even today, adivasis and tribals still live in the wild, along with the local animals and plants). Indeed, geo-zoologists have argued that it is we humans who have transgressed and changed the landscape of Mother Earth.

Incidentally, this appears to be true of not only on land, but in water as well. BBC news reported how with a lull in traffic in the Bosphorus marine route during lockdown in Istanbul, dolphins are increasingly sighted near the shores of the city. Likewise, as the Ganga became less polluted in recent days due to decreased industrial and human waste during lockdown, the Ganges dolphins and gharials (fish-eating crocodiles) have been sighted in larger numbers. In mountains, too; Marco Lambertini of the World Wildlife Fund is concerned that COVID-19 could infect mountain gorillas which are likely to be particularly vulnerable as they share about 98% of their DNA with humans. They, like all great apes, are already endangered due to habitat loss, poaching and diseases – only 900 remain in the mountains of Central Africa.

Source with edits and revisions: Editorials, The Hindu

Questions

1. What is the main point of the passage?
a. Humans have transgressed the landscape of Earth.
b. Animals are first time coming out in the urban area due to the lockdown.
c. Mountain Gorrilla are most vulnerable to corona virus.
d. None of the above.

 

2. Which of the following can’t be inferred from the passage?

a. Protecting mountain gorillas from getting infected from covid is a huge concern
b. We humans have occupied more than fourty percent of the land
c. Ghariyals have been sighted in Ganges for the first time ever.
d. The animals are less hesitant to visit humans land during the lockdown.

 

3. The statement geo-zoologists have argued that it is we humans who have transgressed and changed the landscape of Mother Earth plays which of the following roles in the argument?

a. It acts as a premise for the argument.
b. It acts as a conclusion of the argument
c. It is an inference drawn by the author
d. None of the above.

 

4. Which of the following explains the concern of Marco Lambertini?

a. The large scale poaching of apes
b. The similarity between the DNAs of Mountain gorilla and humans.
c. Corona virus infection in Mountain gorillas.
d. The trespassing of humans in mountain gorilla’s habitat

 

5. What role is played by the author’s description of an elephant that was reported to come down unusually near Hari ki Pauri in Haridwar, in relation to the conclusion?

a. It supports the conclusion by providing an example.
b. It supports the conclusion by providing a contradictory example.
c. It weakens the conclusion by providing an example.
d. It is unrelated to the conclusion.

 

 

CLAT Gurukul

 

Answers
1. D
2. C
3. C
4. C
5. A

Critical Reasoning for CLAT, Passage- Himalayan

In 1968, when the book, The Population Bomb, was published, there were a little over 350 crore people on Earth. Today, the whopping 750 crore human population has made an impact on most flora and fauna. Taking into consideration this lack of abatement in human population growth, an international team of researchers observes how these ecological disruptions affect the life of ungulates (hoofed large mammals). The team notes that humans have brought about changes in the Himalayan realm – there is an increase in cashmere goats, and also, stray dogs have started hunting ungulates including threatened, endangered, and rare ones such as kiang, chiru, saiga and takin.

The team also draws similarities between the two giant mountain ranges – the Himalaya and the Andes, both homes to unique ungulate fauna. Both are currently experiencing increased deglaciation, human colonisation, climate alteration, livestock and tourism-induced changes.

A paper published in Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution stresses that the “world’s 400 million free-ranging dogs – through disease, predation, and displacement – have changed the face of ungulate communities on every continent.” Dogs prey on saiga, blue sheep, argali, chiru, kiang, goral, ibex, sambar, chital and blackbuck.

Joel Berger from Wildlife Conservation Society, the first author, witnessed multiple predation attempts on takin and blue sheep in Bhutan. He writes about seeing up to four dogs in 11 attacks of takin; three of nine calves were individually separated from the groups and disappeared. “Their fates remained unknown… death appeared likely.”

The high elevation dogs of Bhutan also harbour tapeworms which when consumed via grasses by yaks can cause coenurosis, a neurological disease that may result in about 10% mortality of young yaks.

Human activities such as the seasonal relocation of agro-pastoralists to collect the worm fungus Cordyceps can also have an impact on the ungulates. These high-elevation environments have experienced minimal direct human disturbance, and this movement can lead to the displacement of native species. Previous studies have shown that many apex predators have been lost due to fear, habitat conversion and loss of prey.

 

Source with edits and revisions: Editorials, The Hindu

Questions

1. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
a. The prediction done in the book The Population Bomb was highly stretched.
b. Dogs are bigger threat to environment that humans.
c. Stray dogs carries tapeworm.
d. Humans have changed the ecology in Himalayan ranges.

 

2. What is the role played by the claim that dogs prey on saiga, blue sheep, argali, chiru, kiang, goral, ibex, sambar, chital and blackbuck in the argument?

a. It acts as a premise of the argument.
b. It acts as the conclusion of the argument.
c. Both A and B
d. Neither A nor B

3. Which of the following strengthens the inference drawn by the author?

a. Humans amicable coexist with the flora and fauna in and around their residence
b. The free ranging dogs are only found in Himalayan region.
c. Increase in human population means increase in number of stray dogs.
d. The ecological balance gets disturbed every time the number of stray dogs increases.

 

4. Which of the following represent the main point made by the author?

a. The book The Population Bomb predicted the population explosion correctly.
b. Stray dogs causes to 10% fatalities amongst yaks.
c. Exploding human population led to ecological disruption in various regions.
d. The high-elevation environments are most vulnerable to disturbance due o human contact.

 

5. What is the role played by the author’s description of the similarity discovered between Himalayan and Andes by the team, in relation to the conclusion?

a. It supports the conclusion by providing an example.
b. It supports the conclusion by providing a contrary example.’
c. It weakens the conclusion by providing an example.
d. It is unrelated to the conclusion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Answers

1. D
2. A
3. C
4. D
5. A

Critical Reasoning for CLAT, Passage- Global Citizenship

The UN’s Global Education First Initiative states, ‘It is not enough for education to produce individuals who can read, write and count. Education must fully assume its central role in helping people to forge more just, peaceful, tolerant and inclusive societies.’ Today’s world is facing major global challenges and to address these challenges, we need to prepare citizens who know the ABCs of being an active global citizen – citizens who are ready to think globally and act locally! The increased intolerance, rise in nationalism and dearth of humanity demands citizens who understand the true value of education, and the need of creating a just and peaceful world.

 

With the upsurge in the population, we need many more institutions and change makers who are ready to dive in the process of advancing quality education across national and cultural divides. We need to have collaboration between NGOs, community leaders, government officials, leaders from diverse backgrounds and policy-makers to come together and push the agenda and priorities of global citizenship education.

 

1. Which of the following is the most desirable outcome from the UN’s Global Education First Initiative’s perspective?

(a) The number of applicants for global citizenship increases.
(b) Discipline, patience and sanctity are taught through the system of education.
(c) The spirit of learning is fostered among students.
(d) The focus shifts from quantity to quality of education.

 

2. Which of the following can be inferred from the author’s description of the UN’s Global Education First Initiative?

(a) Education must strive to prepare students to take on 21st-century challenges and thrive on them.
(b) The education system needs a radical transformation to tackle the rising illiteracy and inhumanity.
(c) The barriers between nations need to be broken, giving way to informed sets of students.
(d) The uncouth and hooligan approach to education should take a back seat and give way to literacy.

 

3. Which of the following instances does not describe a true global citizen (here Mr. X)?

(a) Mr. X is outraged at the atrocities that Tia has to go through for belonging to the lower strata of the society.
(b) Mr. X is a true patriot at heart: he obeys all laws and pays taxes religiously.
(c) Mr. X works with street kids from all corners of the world and paints murals to brighten some of the world’s most destitute places.
(d) Mr. X is striving hard to make the world a more equitable and sustainable place.

 

4. Which of the following if true, contradicts the basic aim of a global citizen?

(a) Love and respect for diversity
(b) Empathy for other people
(c) Dogmatic and prejudiced attitude in thinking
(d) Participation in the social and political life of one’s community

 

5. Which of the following can be inferred to be an area a global citizen’s help is least likely to be needed?

(a) A zone where a flood has wreaked havoc
(b) A country trampled under communal disharmony
(c) Hunger stricken areas
(d) A technologically inferior country

 

 

 

 

 

1. Ans. (d) The desirable outcome would be for the focus to shift from quantity to quality of education. The UN’s Global Education First Initiative states that it favours change makers who are ready to dive in the process of advancing quality education across national and cultural divides. Option (a) is not related, option (b) is incorrect because the UN’s Global Education First Initiative does not mention discipline (tolerance and patience are needed to be inculcated), option (c) is vague and out of scope. Hence (d).

 

2. Ans. (a) According to The UN’s Global Education First Initiative, just educating students does not count; the recent upsurge of challenges mandates the new generation to address these challenges, and thus the need arises to prepare citizens who know the ABCs of being an active global citizen in the 21st century. Options (b) and (d) are incorrect because literacy is not the sole aim of the initiative. In option (c), the first part is correct, but ‘informed students’ is vague. Hence (a).

 

3. Ans. (b) A global citizen takes head on the problems ailing the society as a whole, like social injustice (option (a)), working together for the neglected (option (c)) or thinking globally (option (d)). Option (b) describes a good citizen on a national level, but not a global one. Hence (b).

 

4. Ans. (c) A global citizen needs to be open towards inclusive thinking, so a dogmatic and narrow-minded approach is contrary to what he stands for. Options (a), (b) and (d) reflect the true essence of a global citizen. Hence (c).

 

5. Ans. (d) Global citizens unite for peace and stability where there is shortage of food (options (a) and (c)), or where a nation is fighting communal conflicts (option (b)). A technologically backward country is not struggling with any of these issues. Hence (d).